More details on the proAKAP4 protein
In simple words, the proAKAP4 is the precursor of AKAP4 protein. Largely described, AKAP4 play a central role in flagellar structure, chemotaxis, capacitation and sperm motility (Luconi et al., 2011).
In humans, the pro-AKAP4 (854 aa) is processes to a “mature” AKAP4 protein lacking the 188 first amino acids (Turner et al., 1998).
ProAKAP4 and AKAP4 are specifically localized to the fibrous sheath of the principal piece of the flagellum and are involved in flagellum structure and sperm motility (see application). Spermatozoa from mice lacking AKAP4 failed to show progressive motility and homozygous male mice are unfertile (Miki et al., 2002). Spermatozoa of male mice knocked-out of the AKAP4 gene have an abnormal fibrous sheath structure and are immotile.
The proAKAP4 precursor is processed to mature AKAP4 during sperm differentiation in the human testes (Nipper et al., 2006). Then the proAKAP4 is fully expressed in ejaculated spermatozoa and can be quantified using ELISA methods, thanks to the 4MID kits. Please visit our website to discover all our ranges of products around the proAKAP4 and AKAP4 biomarkers.
For instance, the Human 4MID Kit (Ref. 4BDX-18K1) is a complete kit with all reagents and buffers to quantify human proAKAP4 in sperm samples
The mouse monoclonal antibody anti-AKAP4 clone 7E10 (Ref. 4BDX-1602) recognizes the carboxy-terminal region of A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) and is suitable for Western Blot, for Immunohistochemistry, ELISA, Electron Microscopy and Immunofluorescence.
1. 2. 3.
1. Electron Microscopy (flagellum coronal section)
2. Immunohistochemistry (Human Testis)
3. Immunofluorescence (Human Spermatozoa)
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More details :
In the litterature, AKAP4 was previously named AKAP82, PRKA4 (Protein Kinase A Anchoring Protein 4), CT99 (Cancer/Testis Antigen 99), HI, p82, or FSC1 (Fibrous Sheath Component 1). AKAP4 (A-Kinase Anchor Protein 4) protein belongs to the family of A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) all sharing a common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the PKA holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. Therefore, AKAP4 is an essential regulator of PKA and PKC protein kinases signalling to the motor protein dynein of the axoneme of flagellum.
AKAP4 can be serine- and tyrosine-phosphorylated in a capacitation-dependent manner in human spermatozoa but the nature of the kinases involved are not yet elucidated.